Yamalo-Nenetsky autonomous okrug occupies the north of the West-Siberian lowland. A little part of okrug is located on the eastern slope of the Arctic Ural.
The territory of the okrug is a plain, located in the zone of permafrost.
The okrug borders on Arkhangelskaya region and the republic of Komi in the west, on Khanty-Mansyisky autonomous okrug in the south. It is washed by the Karskoe Sea in the north.
Location of the okrug in the midst of the northern part of Eurasia determines sharp continental climate. Winters are long and severe. Summers are short. Arctic day and night are typical for this region. Persistent day lasts 47 days and nights, arctic night - 21-75 days and nights.
Main rivers are the Yuribey (450 km), the Mordyyakha (300 km), Kharasavey (300 km). There are a lot of lakes in the okrug.
About half of the territory of the okrug is the zone of Arctic deserts. Climatic factors determines special animal world. Fauna of the okrug includes 227 species of animals.
Intensive development of oil-mining industry threatens many species of animals and plants. This situation may cause death of some animals in near future and will break normal functioning of the northern ecosystems.
In the territory of the okrug there are 2 sanctuaries, 13 reserves and ethnic territory.