The natives of the republic are the Adygeis. In the period of Soviet Russia the population of the republic was divided into groups: the Adygeis, the Kabardians and the Circassians.
Since May 1918 the territory became a part of Kubano-Chernomorskaya Soviet republic. After the Civil War in 1922 Circassian (Adygei) autonomous region was founded. In 1928 the region was renamed as Adygei (Circassian) autonomous region with the centre in Krasnodar, since 1936 the centre of the region was the town of Maikop. In 1991 Adygea became the republic.