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 subject: Yamalo-Nenetsky AO
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 federal okrug: Ural
 economic region: West Siberia
 area: 750 th.sq.km.
 population: 488 th.p.
 index of car numbers: 89
 
 History

Yamalo-Nenetsky autonomous okrug was established on the 10th of December in 1930. Main part of its history the okrug was a constituent of other administrative territories. It was a part of Ural, then of Omskaya regions. In 1944 the okug became a part of Tyumenskaya region.

Opening of Yamalskaya land was in the 11th century. The base of trade was Magnesia. In 1595 a fortress - Obdorsk was built. Since 1930 Obdorsk became the centre of Yamalo-Nenetsky national okrug. In 1933 it was renamed as Salekhard. Since 1950s, when reserves of oil and gas were opened in Yamal, the okrug had gained a great industrial meaning as a centre of oil- and gas-mining.
 

 Geographical location

Yamalo-Nenetsky autonomous okrug occupies the north of the West-Siberian lowland. A little part of okrug is located on the eastern slope of the Arctic Ural.

The territory of the okrug is a plain, located in the zone of permafrost.

The okrug borders on Arkhangelskaya region and the republic of Komi in the west, on Khanty-Mansyisky autonomous okrug in the south. It is washed by the Karskoe Sea in the north.

Location of the okrug in the midst of the northern part of Eurasia determines sharp continental climate. Winters are long and severe. Summers are short. Arctic day and night are typical for this region. Persistent day lasts 47 days and nights, arctic night - 21-75 days and nights.

Main rivers are the Yuribey (450 km), the Mordyyakha (300 km), Kharasavey (300 km). There are a lot of lakes in the okrug.

About half of the territory of the okrug is the zone of Arctic deserts. Climatic factors determines special animal world. Fauna of the okrug includes 227 species of animals.

Intensive development of oil-mining industry threatens many species of animals and plants. This situation may cause death of some animals in near future and will break normal functioning of the northern ecosystems.

In the territory of the okrug there are 2 sanctuaries, 13 reserves and ethnic territory.
 

 Administrative division

Yamalo-Nenetsky autonomous okrug was founded on the 10th of December 1930 within Tyumenskaya region. Its area is 750.3 thousand sq. km.
The okrug is divided into 7 districts, 5 towns of okrug submission, 7 town settlements, 41 villages.
Centre of the okrug is the town of Salekhard. It was founded in 1938.
Distance to Moscow is 2,436 km.
Main towns are Noyabrsk, New Urengoi, Nadym
 

 Economics

Base of the regional economics is oil- and gas-mining. More than 90% of all Russian gas and 10% of oil are mined in Yamalo-Nenetsky okrug.

Main branches of industry are gas-mining, fishery, forest, wood-working industry, production of building materials.

Industrial centres: Novy Urengoy, Noyabrsk.

There are 48 farms in the okrug. Potato, vegetables are grown. Cattle-farming, sheep-, pig-breeding are developed.
 

 
 
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