Greater part of Penzenskaya region is occupied by Privolzhskaya highland. The region borders on Saratovskaya region in the south, on Tambovskaya region in the west, on Ryazanskaya region and the republic of Mordovia in the north, on Ulyanovskaya region in the north-east and the east.
Main rivers are the Sura, the Moksha, the Khoper.
The climate of the region is temperate continental.
Forests cover 20% of the territory of the region.
In the region there are enough water supplies. But the region is poor in minerals. There are reserves of clay, sands, phosphorus.
Penzenskaya region is divided into 28 districts, 5 towns of the regional submission, 5 towns of district submission, 16 town settlements, 359 villages.
Centre of the region is the town of Penza. It was founded in 1663. Distance to Moscow is 709 km.
Main towns are Penza, Kuznetsk.