Karachaevo-Cherkessia as a constituent of Stavropolsky region was founded in 1922. In 1926 it was divided into 3 parts: Karachaevskaya autonomous region, Circassian national okrug, Batalpashinsky district. Karachaevskaya autonomous region existed till 1943. Its population was accused of collaboration with German troops, was subjected to repression and deported to the Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. In 1957 the people came back to the motherland.
In 1990 Karachaevo-Circassin autonomous region became the republic as a constituent of the RF.
Peculiarities of ethnic structure of population of Karachaevo-Cherkessia
Majority of population is Karachais and Russians. Karachais are the most numerous people among highland peoples.
Circassians and Abazins make up 16% of population of the republic. Main problem of Abazins is danger of the loss of their national identity and assimilation with Cherkessia people. They demand to found their national okrug.
Ethnic structure of population is the factor of interethnic tension between peoples of the republic.
| Geographical location|
The republic is situated on the northern part of the Big Caucasus, to the east and north from Elbrus. Length of the territory from north to south - 140 km, from west to east - 170 km. Karachaevo-Cherkessia borders on the republic of Georgia and on the republic of Abkhazia in the south, on Stavropolsky region in the north, on Krasnodarsky region in the west, on the republic of Kabardino-Balkaria in the east.
The relief is mountainous. Main rivers are the Kuban and its tributaries. Forests occupy more than 300 thousand hectares.
| Administrative division|
Area of the republic is 14.1 thousand sq. km.
The republic is divided into 8 districts, 2 towns of republican submission, 2 towns of district submission, 11 town settlements, 59 villages.
Capital of the republic is the town of Cherkessk. It was founded in 1804. Distance to Moscow is 1,674 km.
Main towns: Cherkessk, Karachaevsk.
Population of the republic - 433.7 thousand people. Density of population - 30.8 persons per sq. km.
Karachaevo-Cherkassia is an industrial and agricultural republic. Main industries of the republican economy is chemical, oil-chemical, food and light, tourism.
On the territory of the republic there are two economic regions: Northern - region with developed chemical, metal-working and light industries, grain plant-growing and meat and milk stock-breeding; Southern - region of mining and wood-working industries, sheep-farming, apiculture and tourism.
The republican economics depends on functioning of tourism, resort and sports complex. In the republic there are 383 industrial enterprises.
Situation in agriculture is stable, but its development is restrained by shortage of ploughed fields.