Kalmyks came from the Central Asia. Kalmyks` ancestors - oirats - were famous for their belligerence since the epoch of Chingiz-khan. Part of oirats came to Russian territory and in1609 Kalmyk khanate was founded. Main religion is Buddhism. In Soviet times many Kalmyks were subjected to repression, more than 100 temples were demolished. On 28 December 1943 all the people was deported to the eastern regions of the country, Kalmyk autonomy republic was abolished. Deportation lasted 13 years. In the 1950s Kalmyks came back.
| Geographical location|
Republic of Kalmykia is situated in the western part of the Pricaspian lowland. Its eastern part is washed by the Caspian Sea. Length of the territory from north to south is 640 km, from west to east is 480 km. The republic borders on Astrakhanskaya, Volgogradskaya, Rostovskaya, Stavropolsky regions and Republic of Dagestan. The Republic has the exit to the Caspian Sea and to the coast of the Volga.
The greater part of the republic is in the semi-desert zone. The climate is sharp continental with hot, dry summer and cold, not snowy winter.
| Natural resources|
Area of the Republic - 75.9 thousand sq. km - is quite perspective for farther search of hydrocarbon fields.
Advantageous geo-economic position of the Republic and closeness to large industrial centres let to form big production complex on mining and processing of hydrocarbon, common salt, metal-phosphate ore, quartz sand; industrial exploitation of sun and wind power. carbon raw materials.
In the Republic there are 28 oil-fields. In 1998 245.5 thousand tons of oil and 88 million tons of gas were extracted. There are real preconditions to get essential growth of hydrocarbon reserves, opening of big fields in the territory of Kalmykia.common salt
In the northern part of the Republic there are great supplies of salt, potassium salts. There are only 3-4 slits. Annually about 300 thousand tons of salt may be mined by foundation of big storehouses for hydrocarbon raw materials or strategic waste.metal-phosphate ore
Reserves and natural resources of uranium, phosphate, rare land elements were counted. It is 2-3 times as much as in Kazakhstan. Recommendations on exploitation of ore field for production of phosphate fertilizers and uranium concentrate were prepared by the Committee of Natural Resources of the Republic.
| Administrative division|
In the republic there are 13 districts, 1 town of republican submission, 2 towns of district submission, 5 town settlements, 99 villages.
The capital of the republic is the town of Elista. It was founded in 1930. Distance to Moscow is 1,836 km.